The World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases have released a fact sheet on their workstreams around healthy and sustainable diets. This work is intended to guide European national policy on shifts towards more sustainable diets.
Many public health authorities and governments use WHO recommendations as a basis to guide decision making. The outlined workstreams indicate WHO’s interest in nutrient profiling, processed foods and beverages, digital marketing and sustainable food systems. Below are some details on individual workstreams:
- Food profiling model for healthy and sustainable diets
Current food profiling tools (that score foods on nutritional and environmental factors) will be reviewed and used to develop a new standardised tool. This tool will then be used to inform the creation of sustainable food labelling.
- Data platform for modelling healthy and sustainable dietary patterns
An open-access data platform that will allow governments to assess their national dietary intake data and model diets to meet local nutrition needs and sustainability goals.
- Guidelines on ultra-processed plant-based foods
Investigating the nutritional composition of ultra-processed plant-based foods (such as vegan burgers) sold in retail and restaurants. This will be used to inform guidelines on ultra-processed plant-based food intake.
- Healthy digital food environments
An online platform, called FoodDB, that compiles nutrition data from online food retailers, with the intent of making healthy online food choices easier.
These projects will have important ramifications for the treatment of sustainable nutrition by European authorities. Quantifying the nutritional composition of novel foods is essential in understanding their benefits and risks. It is to be hoped that this project will extend to consideration of the bioavailability of the nutrients in the novel foods.
The greater availability of nutritional data to researchers and policy-makers should allow for more evidence-based decisions on food policy shifts. However, the challenge of creating food profiling tools that can fully capture the nutritional and environmental aspects of different foods is clear: nutrition and environmental impacts are very broad topics, and unifying data from both of these fields in order to compare different foods directly will not be straightforward.
Moreover, there is a difference between healthy, sustainable diets and a globally sustainable food system. A diet that meets health, nutrition and sustainability goals for an individual may not be feasible for feeding the global population. For example, increasing the production of a certain food that contributes to one individual’s healthy, sustainable diet may result in less sustainable production of that food. It is essential to consider both what is healthy for individuals and what the global food system can sustainably produce for the global population.