Waste and losses in the global food system

This Thought for Food article examines the loss of nutrients as a result of food waste. Not all foods are wasted to the same extent, and thus neither are all nutrients. Aggregate numbers for global waste or waste reduction targets mask these important variations.

When considering the impact of changes in the food system, we need to consider the supply of nutrients, as well as the supply of foods. The primary role of the food system is to provide nutrients – in the form of foods – to meet the needs of the global population.

Distinction should be made between food losses and food waste. Losses are the decrease in edible mass along the supply chain prior to retail, and waste the decrease that occurs at the retail and consumer end of the chain. Read More

When demonstrating the impact of food loss and food waste, we should consider the decreases in available nutrients.

When we lose or waste foods containing nutrients that are in abundant supply, this is less critical from a human wellbeing point of view than the loss or waste of foods rich in undersupplied nutrients.

Ways of improving the future food system could include:

  • reducing loss and waste (and potentially lowering production) where we have excess nutrient supply
  • reducing loss and waste (and potentially increasing production) where there are nutrient shortages

So where are the nutrient shortages?

From a macronutrient perspective, current estimates are that nearly 690 million people have insufficient protein and/or energy intakes. However, micro-nutrient deficiencies (hidden hunger) are also an enormous problem: globally, anaemia (iron deficiency) is estimated to impact 43% of 0-5 year olds and 38% of pregnant women; up to 1.8 billion people may have insufficient iodine intake; and 17% of the global population is at risk of zinc deficiency.

The DELTA Model has been created to help people explore future food production scenarios. It uses data on food production, losses, wastes and end uses, coupled with food composition, nutrient bioavailability, population forecasts and nutrient requirements to determine whether a future food system scenario can meet the nutrient needs of the global population. Modelling the food system shows that globally, with equal distribution, we have enough macro-nutrients for all, even carrying current production levels through to feed the 2030 population.

For protein – often cited as a nutrient we need to produce more of to satisfy a growing global demand – there is already enough protein available globally to provide the target intake for the expected 2050 population based on current nutritional guidelines, if it were equitably distributed.

This may seem surprising, but a challenge in discussing the future of food is in separating the nutrition we need, and the nutrition we might want or prefer. Protein is a good example of this. Statements that we “need to expand production by 70%” by 2050 are based on consumer demand rather than requirement. The DELTA Model exposes the differences between demand for specific nutrients such as protein and population requirements.

However, the global story differs for the micronutrients. We are already limited on total supply of Calcium and Vitamin E and will also be limited on Iron, Potassium, Vitamin A and Zinc by 2030 unless changes to the food system are made. That is, even if distributed equally, there is not enough of these nutrients to meet everyone’s needs.

When we look at the distribution of nutrient supply at a country level the picture is worse. The variation in nutrient supply in 2015 shows that a significant proportion of the global population had insufficient access to Calcium, Vitamin E, Iron, Potassium, Zinc, Vitamin A, Riboflavin, Vitamin B12, Fibre, Folate, and Vitamin C.

Relative nutrient supply distribution at a country level in 2015.  All values are normalised to the target intake with the coloured bar showing the global average supply and the error bars showing the range in country level supply from the 10th to the 90th percentile of the global population.

Waste varies with food type, which affects the supply of nutrients in different ways.

Let’s consider a simplified food supply chain: On Farm -> Supply Chain -> Retail -> Consumer

  • On Farm losses are challenging to quantify, as these may include crops or parts of crops not harvested or not used for human food. These quantities are often not recorded either. In many farming systems, waste materials on farm are used to provide food for animals with almost 30% of the global livestock ration coming from crop residues, by-products and coproducts.
  • Once food commodities leave the farm, losses occur along the supply chains that connect farms with retail, including as part of processing into other products. With more expensive commodities there are strong economic drivers to reduce losses through supply chain infrastructure. For less valuable commodities this may not be the case. Well-developed supply chains seek to recover valuable nutrients from by-products and “wastes” by processing into additional foods, animal feeds, or for other uses.
  • At the consumer end of the supply chain, food may be discarded at retail or in-home for its appearance, age, or various other reasons. Consumer waste is generally greater in high income nations where there is the luxury of choice. Individual consumers or households often lack the resources and the incentives to repurpose food waste and inedible material.
Per-capita food waste by country income bracket expressed as Wasted Daily Diets – the number of additional person days of nutrition wasted based on the first limiting nutrient. Data from Chen et al. 2020. 

Across the supply chain economic drivers mean we waste less of what is expensive, which – combined with the perishability of many fruits and vegetables – means food loss and waste is dominated by plant material. Over 20% of fruits, nuts, and vegetables, and their associated nutrients are lost or wasted after leaving the farm gate. Losses of animal products are 7-10%, and losses of more stable plant commodities (e.g. pulses and sugar) are up to 8%. This means that there is less potential to increase the supply of nutrients that are mainly found in animal sourced foods by reducing loss and waste, compared with nutrients common in plant foods. For example, an 50% reduction in all food loss and waste would result in a 16% increase in Vitamin C supply, but only a 6% increase in Vitamin B12.

Overconsumption is a form of waste

The other aspect of waste that needs to be considered is overconsumption. Nutrients consumed in excess of requirements are either excreted in bodily wastes, or in some cases – as with excess food energy intake – accumulated within the body. Once a certain level of supply has been achieved, further intake gives no further benefit to the individual and is thus a form of nutrient or food waste. When we look to the future, reducing overconsumption waste may have a significant impact on global nutrition.

Taking the previous example of Vitamin C, the range in 2015 nutrient supply at a country level was from around 66% of the daily requirement, to more than 2.8 times the target. For Vitamin B12 – sourced almost exclusively from animal foods – the 2015 availability varied from 40% to 1.75 times the target. Reduced waste and more equitable distribution of foods would increase the availability of nutrients to the populations currently below the target.

When considering the question of what to do about food waste, we should also think about the nutrient waste that occurs as part of this. Waste of nutrient rich foods has a greater impact on our ability to nourish populations that waste of nutrient poor foods. Waste occurs at all stages of the supply chain, and there are many forms of consumer waste – including excess intake. Quantifying and addressing how and where we waste important nutrients is a promising route to reducing nutrient deficiencies.

This Thought for Food was written by the SNi team in collaboration with Prof Thom Huppertz and Prof Wayne Martindale.

Glossary

Photo by Joshua Hoehne on Unsplash

WHO Europe outlines healthy and sustainable diets workstream

Read the document

The World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases have released a fact sheet on their workstreams around healthy and sustainable diets. This work is intended to guide European national policy on shifts towards more sustainable diets.

Many public health authorities and governments use WHO recommendations as a basis to guide decision making. The outlined workstreams indicate WHO’s interest in nutrient profiling, processed foods and beverages, digital marketing and sustainable food systems. Below are some details on individual workstreams:

  • Food profiling model for healthy and sustainable diets

Current food profiling tools (that score foods on nutritional and environmental factors) will be reviewed and used to develop a new standardised tool. This tool will then be used to inform the creation of sustainable food labelling.

  • Data platform for modelling healthy and sustainable dietary patterns

An open-access data platform that will allow governments to assess their national dietary intake data and model diets to meet local nutrition needs and sustainability goals.

  • Guidelines on ultra-processed plant-based foods

Investigating the nutritional composition of ultra-processed plant-based foods (such as vegan burgers) sold in retail and restaurants. This will be used to inform guidelines on ultra-processed plant-based food intake.

  • Healthy digital food environments

An online platform, called FoodDB, that compiles nutrition data from online food retailers, with the intent of making healthy online food choices easier.

These projects will have important ramifications for the treatment of sustainable nutrition by European authorities. Quantifying the nutritional composition of novel foods is essential in understanding their benefits and risks. It is to be hoped that this project will extend to consideration of the bioavailability of the nutrients in the novel foods.

The greater availability of nutritional data to researchers and policy-makers should allow for more evidence-based decisions on food policy shifts. However, the challenge of creating food profiling tools that can fully capture the nutritional and environmental aspects of different foods is clear: nutrition and environmental impacts are very broad topics, and unifying data from both of these fields in order to compare different foods directly will not be straightforward.

Moreover, there is a difference between healthy, sustainable diets and a globally sustainable food system. A diet that meets health, nutrition and sustainability goals for an individual may not be feasible for feeding the global population. For example, increasing the production of a certain food that contributes to one individual’s healthy, sustainable diet may result in less sustainable production of that food. It is essential to consider both what is healthy for individuals and what the global food system can sustainably produce for the global population.

Read the document

Glossary

Photo by LikeMeat on Unsplash

Feed Our Future event to bring science, government and industry together

The Riddet Institute is this week hosting an event to bring together food system stakeholders and decision makers for accessible evidence-based discussion of the key global issues and the local decisions that we need to make.

Sustainably feeding a growing population is a global problem, but also one for New Zealand to consider. Where does our reputation for high quality, premium food products fit in a hungrier world? How can kiwi innovation and ingenuity make a difference to the global future of food?

The event will explore the current conversation of sustainable food, bringing moderation and balance to what is often a debate of extremes. National and international experts in the fields of nutrition, food waste, food systems, life cycle analysis and consumer science will speak on these important issues, with open discussion from the attendees.

This dialogue will inspire our future decisions and put New Zealand at the front of the sustainable food systems debate.

Dairy in a low-cholesterol diet

Read the article

A recent study on dairy’s role in cardiometabolic health has added further nuance to the topic by indicating the different outcomes total dairy and individual dairy products have on biomarkers of disease.

Cardiometabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic renal failure are now the number one cause of death in our aging population. The main cause of these diseases is an unhealthy lifestyle. A broad range of biomarkers (indicators of a disease that can be found in the blood) have been identified and can be used to determine onset. Some studies have linked dairy intake with increased risk of individuals developing cardiometabolic disease. The present study tested these associations to further understand how dairy products can influence cardiometabolic health by measuring biomarkers.

The cross-sectional study included over 35,000 women aged 50 to 79, spanning 40 clinical centres across the US. Concentrations of 20 different biomarkers were compared.

The key findings were:

  • Lower triglyceride (type of fat associated with cardiometabolic disease) was associated with greater intake of total dairy. This was driven by full-fat dairy products
  • Greater total milk and yoghurt intake were associated with lower concentrations of total cholesterol, while greater butter intake was associated with higher cholesterol concentrations
  • Greater total dairy, total and full-fat cheese and yoghurt were consistently associated with lower concentrations of glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein (all of which are biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease).

These findings do not support conclusions of dairy playing a role in cardiometabolic disease, and more specifically the health benefit for low-fat dairy product varieties over full-fat, as promulgated by some health authorities. The challenge in finding consistent outcomes for the role of dairy in the onset of cardiometabolic disease calls for further research in the area. What has been made obvious is the critical role that nutrition plays in the health of our populations and that individual products, rather than food groups, should be considered.

Read the article

Glossary

Photo by Julian Hochgesang on Unsplash   

Increasing the nutritional and environmental benefits of crops

Read the article

An integrated technique has been used to find the multiple benefits of introducing legumes to crop rotations in a recent Frontiers study. Not only are these promising findings for developing sustainable food systems, but also a step forward in holistic life cycle analysis measurement.

Adding legumes (beans, peas, lentils) to crop rotations has been shown to increase the nutritional value for livestock and humans while reducing environmental impacts and resource costs. In one example, introducing a legume crop into a typical rotation in Scotland reduced external nitrogen requirements by almost half, with no detriment to the crop’s human nutrient output.

The benefits of legumes range from environmental to nutritional. Unlike many other crops that require additional nitrogen to grow, legumes obtain sufficient nitrogen from the air around them without the need for additional fertilizers. This occurs through a symbiotic relationship with root bacteria that transforms nitrogen in the air to a useable form for plants. Legumes also reduce the need for fertiliser in future crops as they enrich the soil with nitrogen. In terms of human nutrition, legumes are rich in protein, fibre, folates, iron, potassium, magnesium and vitamins.

The novelty of this study was in its comprehensive comparisons across ten crop sequences, 16 impact categories, lengthy timeframes and various European locations. The authors went beyond simple footprinting techniques that only consider the environment or nutrition in isolation. Instead, they considered the footprint of delivering a specific quantity of nutrition. This provides a welcome and realistic perspective on the value of the whole system, with inter-crop effects and overall efficiency of cropping sequences considered.

This work has shown that the choice of functional unit has an important influence on the apparent efficiency of different crop rotations. It also indicates a need for further research using functional units that represent the multiple nutritional attributes of crops for livestock feed. The results of this study illustrate the benefit of using whole-system thinking when designing interventions to drive sustainable food systems.

Read the article

Glossary

Photo by jean wimmerlin on Unsplash

Climate change impacting our productivity gains

Read the article

Global efficiency in agricultural productivity has been known to increase over time, but a recent paper published in Nature Climate Change has illustrated the significant gains we have lost due to climate change.

Productivity growth can be understood as increasing the output of crops and livestock when using the same inputs. As concerns around food security and prices, input costs and the availability of resources grow, the idea of increasing agricultural productivity offers a more positive outlook for the development of the food system.

The Global Agricultural Productivity Report released in 2019 claimed agricultural productivity is growing at 1.63 percent globally. In order to see sustainable production of our food system and supply for a future population of 10 billion in 2050, they estimated that this productivity needs to increase to 1.73 percent.

The novel findings from the recent paper are the first to consider the historical trends and impact of climate change on agricultural productivity. Econometric models are combined with various climate scenarios to illustrate the impact climate change has had on agricultural productivity over the decades. The key finding is that the relationship of inputs and outputs have not been able to reach full potential in productivity gains due to climate change. This has been quantified at 21% of potential agricultural productivity being lost since 1961. This is equivalent to losing 7 years of productivity growth.

Our productivity gains are not currently enough to sustainably supply our growing population, and the scales are tipped further by the impact climate change has on our food production.

While it is disheartening to be confronted with further impacts that climate change is having on our food system, this research does provide tools to increase the robustness of future risk analysis with an increased understanding of climate change rates and impacts.

Read the article

Glossary

Photo by Arvid Froese on Unsplash

Your health is what you eat: the role of nutrition in health

This Thought for Food from Professor and researcher in Health Economics at the University of Sao Paulo, Flavia Mori Sarti, focuses on the importance of healthy diets based on regular intake of fruit and vegetables to maintain health and prevent the onset of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), alongside the potential impacts on health care costs.

In recent decades, advances in nutrition research have been showing the role of diet in promoting health and preventing diseases. A balanced food consumption pattern that includes diverse types of staples, fruits, vegetables, and protein sources provides the energy, macro- and micronutrients to support healthy lifestyles. The consumption of other bioactive compounds may also help prevent certain chronic NCDs such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, and cardiovascular diseases.

However, the food consumption patterns of many populations around the world have been changing away from more traditional patterns towards modern diets marked by excessive intake of industrialized foods with high content of sugar, trans-fats and salt. The nutrition transition refers to the process of substitution of foods in natura with industrialized foods in different populations. This is often accompanied by a decrease in physical activities during transport, work and leisure, and an increase in sedentary activities.

The importance of consuming fruits and vegetables

Agriculture remains one of the most important economic activities, generating employment and income for billions of individuals worldwide. There are approximately 250,000 edible plant species known; however, only around 120 species are cultivated for human consumption. In addition, 12 plants and five animal species are responsible for approximately 75% of world food. Yet, plant food sources represent the main source of energy and nutrients, and are the sole contributors to fiber intake in the human diet.

Many health authorities recommend food consumption patterns with increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure sufficient intake of fiber, micronutrients, trace elements and bioactive compounds, also known as phytochemicals.

Dietary guidelines referring to the daily intake of fresh fruits and vegetables seek to promote the supply of nutrients through healthy diets, optimizing body functions and maintaining an individual’s health. Considering variations in cultural habits, several countries and regions publish and update national dietary guidelines based on current nutrition knowledge adapted for their populations (for example, Australia, Brazil, European Union, India, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States).

Nutritional deficiencies, such as a lack of specific vitamins and minerals found at high concentrations in plants, may be prevented through inclusion of diverse fruits and vegetables in daily meals. There is significant evidence that the high consumption of fiber reduces cholesterol and reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and certain types of cancer. In addition, research on the numerous bioactive compounds that have been identified in plant foods show their contribution to the reduction of risk of NCDs in diverse population groups.

However, not all fruits and vegetables are of equal benefit. The 5-a-day mantra, adopted by authorities in many countries to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, can give the impression that all forms of fruit and vegetables deliver equally positive health consequences. While increased fruit and vegetable consumption is linked to multiple positive health outcomes, it is important to acknowledge the varied nutritional contents of these foods.

For example, there has been much debate on whether fruit juices should count towards achieving intake targets. While fruit juices contain many important micronutrients, they are also a source of sugar while lacking fiber. In developed nations, dietary fruit and vegetable variety is poor, with starchy vegetables making a disproportionately high contribution to vegetable intakes. These foods deliver a high energy intake with low nutrient diversity compared to other vegetables, such as leafy greens. The most desirable increases in fruit and vegetable consumption would be those that deliver high concentrations of micronutrients and fiber without contributing to macronutrient excesses.

Diet-health nexus for reduction of health care costs

Although there is substantial evidence on the protective effects of healthy diets, the consumption of diverse fruits and vegetables in daily diets is usually lower than recommendations in many countries.

The World Health Organization recommendation regarding consumption of fruits and vegetables is to include at least 400 grams per capita per day in the diet. However, according to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), only 101 out of 174 countries had sufficient food supply to achieve this recommendation in 2018. Accounting for food waste (approximately 15% to 30% of food supply, depending on the country), the proportion of countries that fulfill the WHO recommendation reduces to approximately 60 out of 174 countries.

On the other hand, 169 out of 174 countries had a food energy supply greater than 2,000 calories per capita per day. Even accounting for food waste, approximately 120 countries still provide excess daily calories for adult individuals with sedentary lifestyles.

Therefore, modern lifestyles lead to a higher prevalence of obesity and related morbidities in many countries. The recent Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 indicated the greatest recorded increase in populations’ exposure to obesity and diabetes was between 1990 and 2019, among other risk factors for early mortality linked with modifiable behaviors. Simultaneously, the low diversity in food consumption patterns provide low intakes of micronutrients and bioactive compounds, characterizing the double burden of diseases, marked by coexistence of undernutrition and obesity related to NCD.

In Brazil, direct costs due to outpatient and inpatient care for treatment of 14 overweight- and obesity-related diseases has been estimated to total US$ 2.1 billion per year between 2008 and 2010. Other estimates pointed to expenditures of approximately 3.45 billion reais (US$ 908 million), attributable to outpatient, inpatient and medication for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and obesity on the national health system in 2018.

A systematic review of literature showed estimates of substantial direct health care costs of obesity and related diseases in 17 studies from developed countries and 6 studies from developing countries. They found that the medical costs associated with obesity and its knock-on effects had been increasing across both the developed and developing world. A previous review indicated that obesity was responsible for approximately 0.7% to 2.8% national health care expenditures in developed and developing countries worldwide. Additionally, individuals diagnosed with obesity usually presented costs 30% higher in comparison with healthy weight individuals due to occurrence of obesity-related NCD.

Conclusion

The reversion of negative nutrition transition trends worldwide depends on changes at individual, social, and policy level: these include gradual modifications of dietary patterns towards greater inclusion of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables; increased physical activity levels, particularly during transportation and leisure; regulation of food marketing directed at children; adoption of nutrition education strategies; and health promotion actions within primary health care.

The cost-effectiveness of numerous strategies targeting obesity among children, adolescents and adults was assessed through economic evaluation studies in Australia, showing higher effectiveness of actions focusing on lifestyle changes among younger individuals, especially tackling consumption of industrialized foods and beverages, promoting physical activity and encouraging regular consumption of nutritious foods. Primary health care strategies addressing healthy lifestyles through family-based visits and surgical interventions showed reasonable cost-effectiveness.

Besides reducing costs in national health systems, incremental changes in diet associated with adjustments in physical activity level may prevent the onset of diverse NCD and reduce early mortality in different population groups worldwide, thus prolonging healthy life years and maintaining quality of life of individuals. In sum, following dietary guidelines will be a win-win situation for individuals and governments.

The Thought for Food was written by Flavia Mori Sarti, professor and researcher in Health Economics from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Glossary

Photo courtesy of Flavia Mori Sarti.

Finding harmony between plant-based and meat-eater diets

A recent survey commissioned by Finnish plant-based brand “Beanit” was carried out to explore the dispute on various diets, and the barriers this creates in behaviour change. It highlights the contrasting opinions of consumers, with vegetarians and meat-eaters alike feeling judged on their food choices.

Key findings of the study were that 64% of the surveyed population found public discussion around diets polarising, with 44% wanting to increase vegetarian foods in their diets. It is known that there is a gap between consumer intent and action, and this survey highlights the effect public scrutiny can have. Consumer discomfort between information and action can lead to a defensive or confrontational approach. This type of conversation is counterproductive in the transition to a reduced impact lifestyle. It fosters an environment of extremity between two groups.

The survey suggests a flexitarian diet offers the largest opportunity for Beanit’s plant-based market. The company takes the perspective that small changes made by large populations produce better results than a small group cutting out a certain behaviour entirely.

Although Beanit’s value in this may be to urge consumers to adopt a plant-based diet to increase sales, they addressed the results through a campaign named “Meat Saturday”. This encourages consumers to eat meat once a week on Saturdays. It looks to facilitate inclusivity between the labelled meat-eater and plant-based groups, offering the idea of mutual acceptability between diets.

The takeaway from the survey is relevant to any disruptive industry or product claiming to be a sustainable option. A positive, objective and inclusive narrative must be encouraged to facilitate progress towards sustainable behaviour change.

Glossary

Photo by amirmasoud on Unsplash   

DELTA Model version 1.3 launched

The coloured bar shows the global average availability of each nutrient. The error bars show the range in availability in different parts of the world (10th and 90th population percentiles based on country level averages). While there are only a couple of nutrients where global availability is below target, the level of variation results in many more nutrients of concern at a country level.

Go to the model

The latest version of the DELTA Model is now available online. It features new insights into national and regional nutrient availability, as well as nutrient trade.

It’s common to talk about food trade between countries or regions, but less common to think about the movement of individual food nutrients around the world. For example, New Zealanders are probably very aware of our country’s exports of animal-sourced foods (like dairy and red meat), but likely haven’t thought about what this means in terms of the calcium or iron included in these exports.

DELTA 1.3 presents the domestic production of 29 food nutrients, the export and import dynamics of these nutrients, and how this measures up to meeting per capita per day nutrient targets for a country. It also presents how this availability differs in different parts of the world, showing the user the inequalities in access to different nutrients. The results are adjusted for waste, non-food uses and bioavailability in the same way as the rest of the DELTA calculations.

Another change is to the splash page first displayed to the user. This now features an outline of the global nutrition challenge that the world is facing, as well as a description of how the DELTA Model was designed to contribute to our understanding of this complex challenge. Further additions and changes can be found in the release notes.

Go to the model

Could this be the end to ‘dairy-free’ or ‘creamy’ plant-based food in the EU?

The Dairy Ban or ‘Amendment 171’, saw a narrow majority vote by the European Parliament in October 2020, preventing imitation of dairy products by non-dairy products.

This result saw a rally of 21 campaign groups, climate activists such as Greta Thunberg, and large dairy-alternative food producers such as Oatly protest the amendment. A petition against Amendment 171 created by ProVeg has received over 400,000 signatures. Further discussion on the amendment between Council, the Commission and the EU Parliament will continue this year.

Currently dairy terms in the EU are protected by law to ensure integrity of dairy products and to reduce misleading claims by non-dairy products. “Imitation or evocation” of existing dairy products is banned, including terms such as “almond milk” or “vegan cheese”. Amendment 171 furthers this to censor all use of dairy-related language, packaging and imaging in the marketing of plant-based foods. This would see dairy-alternative food producers banned from using terms such as “yoghurt-style”, “creamy”, or packaging that resembles the traditional milk carton and yoghurt pot shapes.

A recent study published in the Journal of Animal and Environmental Law found no difference in consumer perception of products coming from animals, or not, when branding incorporates wording traditionally associated with animal products, e.g. “milk”. Furthermore, omitting these words can lead to confusion from the consumer on taste and use of the product. However, a nutritional aspect was not included in the study, which could provide interesting results in the consumers perception of the product’s nutritional benefit.

Whether the dairy industry secures exclusive rights to the use of dairy-related language or not, this discussion comes down to the consumer. At the heart of both arguments is the push for consumer awareness. Further awareness will allow consumers to make informed decisions on the products they are purchasing and the impact these have on the environment and their health. All of which feeds into the sustainability of us as individuals, communities and globally.

Glossary

Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash