Achieving adequate nutrition in a malnourished world

Achieving adequate nutrition in a malnourished world

Recently the Sustainable Nutrition Initiative® hosted Dr Ty Beal from the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) at the 2023 Joint Conference of the Nutrition Societies of New Zealand and Australia followed by a visit to SNi® at the Riddet Institute in Palmerston North.

Dr Beal’s conference presentation addressed the global burden of undernutrition and the possible nutrition focused solutions, providing insights into some of the influencing patterns behind global malnourishment. The nutritional role of both animal and plant sourced foods in addressing micronutrient deficiencies were discussed and the presentation concluded with a summary of the key issues related to environmental impacts of global food systems, emphasising the need for a diverse set of approaches to achieve sustainable nutrient adequacy for the global population.

The burden of malnutrition

Data from the Global Nutrition Report, 2021 (see Figure 1) was used to illustrate the widespread issues for global malnutrition. The data highlighted major indicators, revealing that 22% of all children under 5 are stunted, 7% are wasted, 6% are overweight, and 15% of all live births were classified as low birth weight. Simultaneously, over 2 billion people are overweight, and 452 million people are underweight, adding complexity to the current malnutrition issue. The coexistence of excess and undernutrition is observed within countries and individuals, alongside micronutrient deficiencies.

Figure 1: Global malnutrition for some key indicators. From the Global Nutrition Report, (2021)

Specific markers of chronic diseases included raised blood pressure in over 1 billion people and over 500 million people with diabetes. Anaemia affects 30% of all women and girls of reproductive age. All these forms of malnutrition contribute to significant impacts on global health.

Research indicates that over half of preschool-aged children and two-thirds of women of reproductive age are deficient in one or more micronutrients. The impact of sparse data used to estimate the prevalence of global micronutrient deficiencies underscores the need for improved and more frequent data collection.

These deficiencies impact individuals within all countries and regions. Even in high-income countries, diets can be inadequate for essential micronutrients, with a particular emphasis on iron, as demonstrated by data from women in the UK and USA where at least 1 in 5 women are iron deficient.

Using food intake to estimate dietary micronutrient inadequacies

The available data on individual’s dietary habits across countries and regions is limited but compiled dietary data from 31 countries reveals prevalent micronutrient inadequacies within these populations, seen in Figure 2. This pattern is observed not only in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia but also in high-income countries such as the USA. Dr Beal emphasised that while the biomarkers for deficiency and reported intakes do not always correspond, they consistently indicate issues related to the nutrient inadequacy of diets.

Figure 2: Estimations of national and sub-national usual nutrient intake distributions of global diets (Passarelli et al. (2022))

Modelling estimates from a study under development suggests about two-thirds of the global population does not consume enough calcium, iron, or vitamin E. This is consistent with SNi® DELTA Model® findings.

Different nutritional challenges affect different parts of the world, meaning different solutions are needed to overcome them. For example, in many high-income countries more than half of calories come from ultra-processed foods. In low and middle-income countries the reasons for deficiencies are attributed to low dietary diversity. This is commonly driven by necessity, not by choice. Diets in low middle-income countries are predominantly composed of starchy staples, leading to inadequate nutrient content. Beal highlighted that while a higher dietary diversity does not guarantee adequate nutrition, it does enhance the likelihood. Ultra-processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and processed meat are consumed with higher frequency in high-income countries but are increasingly being consumed more frequently in low and middle-income countries, although there is substantial regional variation. Understanding these patterns is crucial, as addressing this issue hinges on comprehending people’s dietary patterns.

The reduced diet diversity is also compounded with the decline in overall nutrient density within foods over time, as highlighted in this research. Today’s food lacks the same nutritional value as those from centuries ago due to breeding and climate change. Dr Beal highlighted the importance of both animal and plant sourced foods in the provision of key nutrients in the diet. The densest sources being organ meats, small fish, dark leafy greens, bivalves, crustaceans, ruminant meat, eggs, dairy, and other fish as seen in Figure 3. Incorporating a variety and greater quantity of these foods into current food supplies and diets could contribute to addressing micronutrient gaps, particularly in low middle-income countries.

Figure 3: Calories and grams needed to provide an average of one-third of recommended intakes of vitamin A, folate, vitamin B12, calcium, iron and zinc for women aged 15-49 years. From Beal and Ortenzi. (2022).

Animal sourced foods are appropriate for humans

Animal sourced foods (ASFs) are unique for offering a suite of nutrients including retinol, heme iron, vitamins B12 and D3, as well as a complete amino acid profile, DHA and EPA. Other unique and potentially beneficial compounds include creatine, anserine, taurine, cysteamine, 4-hydroxyproline, carnosine, CLA and bioactive peptides. While some of these nutrients may not be classified as essential, they may be nonetheless beneficial for human health. Comparison of the bioavailability of some nutrients in ASFs compared to plant sourced foods (PSFs) reveals increased bioavailability for many nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, iron, and zinc.

Beal’s “Friend or Foe” paper was utilised to illustrate the significance of nutrients from ASFs across various life stages, particularly from pregnancy to early childhood. Nutrients found in ASFs play a crucial role in pregnancy, infant feeding, child growth and development, and adolescence.

What do plant sourced foods have to offer?

PSFs contain unique nutrients, serving as primary providers of folate, vitamin E, magnesium, potassium and vitamin C, showcasing the complementary of PSFs and ASFs.

There is global underconsumption of fruits and vegetables. Dark green leafy vegetables, crucial sources of concentrated nutrients, exhibit varied consumption patterns with reasons for underconsumption differing by country. Some countries face challenges in growing these vegetables, while in others where accessibility exists, they are not frequently purchased. The intake of legumes, nuts and seeds recommended by global dietary guidelines also showed low consumption levels worldwide. Ensuring nutrient adequacy is crucial, as estimates indicate that diets with very low ASF content may elevate the risk of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies, particularly for bioavailable iron and zinc. Optimal diets necessitate a balanced combination of ASFs and PSFs, with room for debate about the ideal proportions.

The environmental impact of food systems

Food systems account for 34% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, 70% of freshwater withdrawals and pose the greatest threat to species extinction. A readily achievable measure to reduce these emissions is addressing food loss and waste, as discussed in an upcoming T4F.

Boosting production efficiency, allowing more food to be cultivated on the same land, which can be explored using SNi®’s cropping requirement and allocation model (included in the DELTA Model®), and promoting agrobiodiversity are key strategies. These efforts contribute to holistic outcomes, encompassing physical, economic, social, environmental, and cultural well-being. Circularity in livestock farming systems can also enhance contributions to these positive outcomes. This can be seen in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Overview of the main positive and negative interactions between livestock farming and the environment. From Beal et al. (2023)

What do we have to pay attention to?

A suite of approaches is essential to achieve sustainable nutrient adequacy for everyone. This involves dietary adjustments aimed at enhancing the nutrient density and quality of the diet. Various other strategies, including fortification, biofortification and targeted supplementation for specific population groups, can be used to elevate nutrient intakes.

Global malnutrition issues persist. Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in low and middle-income countries but are also common in high-income countries. Current food systems fall short of providing adequate diets. In high-income countries, ultra-processed foods dominate. Meanwhile, low diet diversity in low and middle income countries are driven by a reliance on starchy staple foods, has significant negative outcomes.

It is crucial to prioritise nutrient adequacy and address the gaps in nutrition for the entire population, rather than solely focussing on those who can afford diverse diets or supplements. As such, accommodation of different approaches will be necessary to ensure comprehensive nutrition is available for everyone.

SNi hosted Dr Beal at the 2023 Joint Conference of the Nutrition Societies of New Zealand and Australia (28 November - 1 December 2023) in Auckland, and at the Riddet Institute from 4 - 6 December 2023) in Palmerston North.

This Thought for Food was written by Raquel Lozano, with the support of Dr Ty Beal and the SNi® team.



Professor Warren McNabb
Warren McNabb is a Professor of Nutritional Science at the Riddet Institute; one of New Zealand’s Centres of Research Excellence (CoRE), hosted by Massey University. He leads SNi® and his research interests include digestive physiology and metabolism, nutrition for health, and sustainable nutrition.
Project Leader | W.McNabb@massey.ac.nz
Professor Warren McNabb
Warren McNabb is a Professor of Nutritional Science at the Riddet Institute; one of New Zealand’s Centres of Research Excellence (CoRE), hosted by Massey University. He leads SNi® and his research interests include digestive physiology and metabolism, nutrition for health, and sustainable nutrition.
Project Leader | W.McNabb@massey.ac.nz
Dr Nick Smith
Nick works as a mathematical modeller on the Riddet Institute SNi®. He is responsible for a wide range of SNi's work and the continued development of the SNi models like the DELTA Model®. This is a tool for investigating how global food production meets global nutritional requirements as part of a sustainable food system.
Research Officer
Dr Nick Smith
Nick works as a mathematical modeller on the Riddet Institute SNi®. He is responsible for a wide range of SNi's work and the continued development of the SNi models like the DELTA Model®. This is a tool for investigating how global food production meets global nutritional requirements as part of a sustainable food system.
Research Officer
Dr Andrew Fletcher
Andrew is a Chemical Engineer with a PhD in process control and modelling. Andrew is a Honorary Fellow at the Riddet Institute and has been involved with SNi® since the outset. He is based at the Fonterra Research and Development Centre in Palmerston North and is involved in a range of research, management and strategy roles.
Honorary Fellow
Dr Andrew Fletcher
Andrew is a Chemical Engineer with a PhD in process control and modelling. Andrew is a Honorary Fellow at the Riddet Institute and has been involved with SNi® since the outset. He is based at the Fonterra Research and Development Centre in Palmerston North and is involved in a range of research, management and strategy roles.
Honorary Fellow
Professor Jeremy Hill
Professor Jeremy Hill has played a major role in developing SNi®. He has also been involved in developing strategic partnerships between Fonterra and the Riddet Institute. For example, the establishment of three Professorial Chairs in Food Material Science, Nutrition, and Consumer and Sensory Science. Jeremy is the Chief Science and Technology Officer at Fonterra.
Adjunct Professor
Professor Jeremy Hill
Professor Jeremy Hill has played a major role in developing SNi®. He has also been involved in developing strategic partnerships between Fonterra and the Riddet Institute. For example, the establishment of three Professorial Chairs in Food Material Science, Nutrition, and Consumer and Sensory Science. Jeremy is the Chief Science and Technology Officer at Fonterra.
Adjunct Professor
Dr Mahya Tavan
Mahya is a postdoctoral research fellow working on the development of the iOTA model. iOTA is a dietary optimisation tool for designing sustainable diets that are nutritious, acceptable and affordable. Prior to joining SNi®, Mahya held a research role at the University of Melbourne, Australia where she carried out various research projects on sustainable food production, resource use efficiency and biofortification of fresh food.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Dr Mahya Tavan
Mahya is a postdoctoral research fellow working on the development of the iOTA model. iOTA is a dietary optimisation tool for designing sustainable diets that are nutritious, acceptable and affordable. Prior to joining SNi®, Mahya held a research role at the University of Melbourne, Australia where she carried out various research projects on sustainable food production, resource use efficiency and biofortification of fresh food.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Raquel Lozano
Raquel is a postdoctoral research fellow creating models for national food systems. Her PhD research focused on helping design horticultural packaging systems to minimise the environmental impact. Raquel was awarded the International Society of Horticultural Sciences Young Minds Award in 2023, and is keen to use mathematical modelling to provide holistic information to decision-makers in the area of sustainable nutrition.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Raquel Lozano
Raquel is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow creating models for national food systems. Her PhD research focused on helping design horticultural packaging systems to minimise the environmental impact. Raquel was awarded the International Society of Horticultural Sciences Young Minds Award in 2023, and is keen to use mathematical modelling to provide holistic information to decision-makers in the area of sustainable nutrition.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Patricia Soh
Prior to her current PhD, Patricia attained a Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Albany. The current focus of her PhD is investigating nutritional concerns within vegan diets.
PhD Student
Patricia Soh
Prior to her current PhD, Patricia attained a Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Albany. The current focus of her PhD is investigating nutritional concerns within vegan diets.
PhD Student
Ejovi Abafe
Prior to his current PhD, Ejovi obtained a Master’s and a Bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Economics from the University of South Africa (UNISA) and Delta State University, Nigeria. The current focus of his PhD at the Riddet Institute is Global land use for the delivery of nutrition.
PhD Student
Ejovi Abafe
Prior to his current PhD, Ejovi obtained a Master’s and a Bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Economics from the University of South Africa (UNISA) and Delta State University, Nigeria. The current focus of his PhD at the Riddet Institute is Global land use for the delivery of nutrition.
PhD Student
Justine Coomson
Prior to her current PhD, Justine obtained a Masters degree in Population, Family and Reproductive Health and a Bachelor's degree in Dietetics from the University of Ghana. Justine has worked as a research assistant and a clinical dietician in Ghana before coming to New Zealand. The current focus on her PhD is the impact of biofortification and supplementation to diets.
PhD Student
Justine Coomson
Prior to her current PhD, Justine obtained a Masters degree in Population, Family and Reproductive Health and a Bachelor's degree in Dietetics from the University of Ghana. Justine has worked as a research assistant and a clinical dietician in Ghana before coming to New Zealand. The current focus on her PhD is the impact of biofortification and supplementation to diets.
PhD Student
Hannah Ramsay
Hannah is the Project Manager for SNi®. She started her career in the Riddet Institute when she first came to New Zealand and has since done project and event work across various educational institutes. The opportunity to return to Project Management at the Riddet Institute was very welcome, especially given the fascinating research and mahi conducted as part of SNi®.
Project Manager | H.Ramsay@massey.ac.nz
Hannah Ramsay
Hannah is the Project Manager for SNi®. She started her career in the Riddet Institute when she first came to New Zealand and has since done project and event work across various educational institutes. The opportunity to return to Project Management at the Riddet Institute was very welcome, especially given the fascinating research and mahi conducted as part of SNi®.
Project Manager | H.Ramsay@massey.ac.nz
Amelia Barker
Amelia is a Communications Officer at the Riddet Institute. She has many years experience in digital media communications at various organisations. Amelia is passionate about research and enjoys promoting the fantastic mahi (work) that SNi® does.
Communications Officer
Amelia Barker
Amelia is a Communications Officer at the Riddet Institute. She has many years experience in digital media communications at various organisations. Amelia is passionate about research and enjoys promoting the fantastic mahi (work) that SNi® does.
Communications Officer
Rangimarie Hunia
Rangimarie Hunia was appointed an alternate director of Te Ohu Kaimoana at the beginning of 2015 before being appointed a full director in November 2015, and Chair in July 2019. The first wahine (woman) Chair in the history of Te Ohu Kaimoana. In 2017, she was appointed a Chair of Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust. In 2016, she was appointed Chief Executive of Ngāti Whātua Ōrakei Whai Maia. Whai Maia is responsible for the well-being of its 5,000 tribal members and focuses on education, health, employment and environmental areas. She played an active role as a member of the Iwi Working Group that was established to facilitate understanding and iwi decision making in response to the 11-year Review of Māori Fisheries Settlement entities. Rangimarie is also a member of Global Women and was a finalist in the Westpac Women of Influence Awards 2014.
Ngāti Whātua Chair of the SNi® International Advisory Group Chief Executive of Ngāti Whātua Ōrakei Whai Maia
Rangimarie Hunia
Rangimarie Hunia was appointed an alternate director of Te Ohu Kaimoana at the beginning of 2015 before being appointed a full director in November 2015, and Chair in July 2019. The first wahine (woman) Chair in the history of Te Ohu Kaimoana. In 2017, she was appointed a Chair of Te Pūtea Whakatupu Trust. In 2016, she was appointed Chief Executive of Ngāti Whātua Ōrakei Whai Maia. Whai Maia is responsible for the well-being of its 5,000 tribal members and focuses on education, health, employment and environmental areas. She played an active role as a member of the Iwi Working Group that was established to facilitate understanding and iwi decision making in response to the 11-year Review of Māori Fisheries Settlement entities. Rangimarie is also a member of Global Women and was a finalist in the Westpac Women of Influence Awards 2014.
Ngāti Whātua Chair of SNi® International Advisory Group Chief Executive of Ngāti Whātua Ōrakei Whai Maia
Jeroen Dijkman
Dr. Jeroen Dijkman is the founding head of the Nestlé Institute of Agricultural Sciences at Nestlé Research. The Institute aims to translate novel agricultural science into concrete applications and to identify and develop the most promising regenerative agriculture technologies. Headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, the organization has a decentralized structure and incorporates Nestlé’s existing plant sciences research facilities in France, as well as numerous research and reference farms around the world. The Institute has three focus areas: plant sciences, dairy-livestock sciences and agricultural system sciences. Jeroen has worked for over 30 years, in all major regions of the world, with bi- and multi-lateral donors, i-NGOs, international and national research centres, the World Bank, UN agencies and the private sector on finding ways to use research and innovation to transition agri-food systems towards more productive but also more sustainable and socially inclusive pathways. In his last two assignments prior to taking up his current position, Jeroen combined the roles of Director (International) of the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre and the Senior Technical Adviser of the UN Environment, Climate and Clean Air Coalition agriculture initiative. Subsequently, he was the Managing Director of the Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research. The Animal Sciences Group consists of the Department of Animal Sciences of Wageningen University and three Wageningen Research institutes: Wageningen Bio-veterinary Research, Wageningen Livestock Research and Wageningen Marine Research.
Head of Nestlé Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Jeroen Dijkman
Dr. Jeroen Dijkman is the founding head of the Nestlé Institute of Agricultural Sciences at Nestlé Research. The Institute aims to translate novel agricultural science into concrete applications and to identify and develop the most promising regenerative agriculture technologies. Headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, the organization has a decentralized structure and incorporates Nestlé’s existing plant sciences research facilities in France, as well as numerous research and reference farms around the world. The Institute has three focus areas: plant sciences, dairy-livestock sciences and agricultural system sciences. Jeroen has worked for over 30 years, in all major regions of the world, with bi- and multi-lateral donors, i-NGOs, international and national research centres, the World Bank, UN agencies and the private sector on finding ways to use research and innovation to transition agri-food systems towards more productive but also more sustainable and socially inclusive pathways. In his last two assignments prior to taking up his current position, Jeroen combined the roles of Director (International) of the New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre and the Senior Technical Adviser of the UN Environment, Climate and Clean Air Coalition agriculture initiative. Subsequently, he was the Managing Director of the Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research. The Animal Sciences Group consists of the Department of Animal Sciences of Wageningen University and three Wageningen Research institutes: Wageningen Bio-veterinary Research, Wageningen Livestock Research and Wageningen Marine Research.
Head of Nestlé Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Berry Marttin
Berry Marttin was born and raised in Brazil. Over the course of his career at Rabobank, he has gained extensive experience as an international banker in both wholesale and retail banking, working in various senior executive positions in Australia, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Curacao and Brazil. Mr Marttin moved to the Netherlands in 2004 to become Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rabobank Amsterdam. In 2009, he joined the Managing Board with special focus on Rabobank’s international Wholesale and Rural banking activities and further responsibilities including Leasing (DLL), Rabo Carbon Bank and RaboResearch. His principal other activities outside Rabobank include serving as President of the EACB (European Association of Co-operative Banks) and Member of the Board of Neumann Foundation. Moreover, Mr Marttin serves as the first Chairman of the Global Steering Committee of the Food Action Alliance, where World Economic Forum together with IFAD, WBCSD, CIAT, AfDB and Rabobank and over 20 global leaders unite to deploy large scale action through game changing initiatives for food systems transformation. In 2021, he was invited to join the UN Food Systems Summit Champions network, a network encompassing leadership from a broad range of constituencies, in all parts of the world, who are championing food systems and food systems transformation.
Member of the Managing Board Rabobank Group
Berry Marttin
Berry Marttin was born and raised in Brazil. Over the course of his career at Rabobank, he has gained extensive experience as an international banker in both wholesale and retail banking, working in various senior executive positions in Australia, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Curacao and Brazil. Mr Marttin moved to the Netherlands in 2004 to become Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rabobank Amsterdam. In 2009, he joined the Managing Board with special focus on Rabobank’s international Wholesale and Rural banking activities and further responsibilities including Leasing (DLL), Rabo Carbon Bank and RaboResearch. His principal other activities outside Rabobank include serving as President of the EACB (European Association of Co-operative Banks) and Member of the Board of Neumann Foundation. Moreover, Mr Marttin serves as the first Chairman of the Global Steering Committee of the Food Action Alliance, where World Economic Forum together with IFAD, WBCSD, CIAT, AfDB and Rabobank and over 20 global leaders unite to deploy large scale action through game changing initiatives for food systems transformation. In 2021, he was invited to join the UN Food Systems Summit Champions network, a network encompassing leadership from a broad range of constituencies, in all parts of the world, who are championing food systems and food systems transformation.
Member of the Managing Board Rabobank Group
Dr Jason Clay
Jason Clay is the Senior Vice President for Markets and Executive Director of the Markets Institute at WWF, which was created to identify and address emerging global issues, trends, and tools impacting conservation in more timely, cost-effective, and scalable ways. His career has ranged from working on a family farm and for the US Department of Agriculture. He taught at Harvard and Yale and spent more than 35 years with human rights and environmental NGOs. In 1988, Clay founded Rainforest Marketing, set up a trading company within an NGO, helped Indigenous people and local communities access global markets, and launched Ben & Jerry’s Rainforest Crunch, plus more than 200 other products with sales of $100 million. From 1999 to 2003, he co-directed a WWF, the World Bank, UN FAO, and NACA consortium to identify the most significant environmental and social impacts of shrimp aquaculture, as well as practices to reduce them. From 2004 to 2012, he convened multistakeholder roundtables to create performance-based standards for commodities including salmon, soy, sugarcane, cotton, and beef. He developed WWF’s Market Transformation program in 2006 to work on agriculture, aquaculture, livestock, and corporate engagement. Clay continues to lead WWF-US efforts to improve private sector supply chain management and help their producers address the most significant impacts. In 2008, he created the Carbon and Commodities program to address supply chain GHG emissions. He has helped whole sectors improve their sustainability performance (e.g., the Global Salmon Initiative). He is now working with the global leather industry to support a DCF leather fund and is testing support for a 1% environmental performance payments to support the transition costs and incentives to finance what producers need to do to become legal and deforestation and conversion free. He is launching a two-year proof of concept for Codex Planetarius, a set of minimum global standards to reduce the key impacts of food and commodities traded internationally. Clay has authored 18 books and 500 articles, and has given more than 1,500 invited presentations. He studied anthropology and agriculture at Harvard, the London School of Economics, and Cornell (PhD).
Senior Vice President, Markets at World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Dr Jason Clay
Jason Clay is the Senior Vice President for Markets and Executive Director of the Markets Institute at WWF, which was created to identify and address emerging global issues, trends, and tools impacting conservation in more timely, cost-effective, and scalable ways. His career has ranged from working on a family farm and for the US Department of Agriculture. He taught at Harvard and Yale and spent more than 35 years with human rights and environmental NGOs. In 1988, Clay founded Rainforest Marketing, set up a trading company within an NGO, helped Indigenous people and local communities access global markets, and launched Ben & Jerry’s Rainforest Crunch, plus more than 200 other products with sales of $100 million. From 1999 to 2003, he co-directed a WWF, the World Bank, UN FAO, and NACA consortium to identify the most significant environmental and social impacts of shrimp aquaculture, as well as practices to reduce them. From 2004 to 2012, he convened multistakeholder roundtables to create performance-based standards for commodities including salmon, soy, sugarcane, cotton, and beef. He developed WWF’s Market Transformation program in 2006 to work on agriculture, aquaculture, livestock, and corporate engagement. Clay continues to lead WWF-US efforts to improve private sector supply chain management and help their producers address the most significant impacts. In 2008, he created the Carbon and Commodities program to address supply chain GHG emissions. He has helped whole sectors improve their sustainability performance (e.g., the Global Salmon Initiative). He is now working with the global leather industry to support a DCF leather fund and is testing support for a 1% environmental performance payments to support the transition costs and incentives to finance what producers need to do to become legal and deforestation and conversion free. He is launching a two-year proof of concept for Codex Planetarius, a set of minimum global standards to reduce the key impacts of food and commodities traded internationally. Clay has authored 18 books and 500 articles, and has given more than 1,500 invited presentations. He studied anthropology and agriculture at Harvard, the London School of Economics, and Cornell (PhD).
Senior Vice President, Markets at World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Professor Manny Noakes
Professor Manny Noakes has a PhD in nutrition as well as having trained as a dietitian in her earlier years. She is more recently a graduate of the Australian Institute of Company Directors. Prof Noakes is a former Director and Senior Principal Research Scientist, Nutrition and Health at CSIRO, Australia. She currently runs her own nutrition consultancy and is also a non-executive Director for Meat and Livestock Australia. She is considered a key opinion leader and advisor in nutrition and health, has extensive media and public speaking experience. She has over 25 years’ experience in many fields of nutrition and health, and has undertaken numerous clinical dietary intervention trials in weight management, functional foods and cardiovascular health. She has also undertaken research on diet and sustainability and redefined the environmental agenda from a food and health perspective. Prof Noakes has authored more than 200 peer-reviewed publications which have been cited more than 9000 times and has an H index of 52. She was instrumental in the development and release of five editions of the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet, which was launched in 2004 and has been translated into 17 languages and sold over one million copies in Australia. The Total Wellbeing Diet has been further commercialised to a successful online programme. Prof Noakes is the recipient of three CSIRO Medals, is a Distinguished Alumni of Flinders University, holds a research excellence award from the University of Adelaide and is a recipient of the Zonta Club Woman of International Achievement award.
Nutrition Consultant
Professor Manny Noakes
Professor Manny Noakes has a PhD in nutrition as well as having trained as a dietitian in her earlier years. She is more recently a graduate of the Australian Institute of Company Directors. Prof Noakes is a former Director and Senior Principal Research Scientist, Nutrition and Health at CSIRO, Australia. She currently runs her own nutrition consultancy and is also a non-executive Director for Meat and Livestock Australia. She is considered a key opinion leader and advisor in nutrition and health, has extensive media and public speaking experience. She has over 25 years’ experience in many fields of nutrition and health, and has undertaken numerous clinical dietary intervention trials in weight management, functional foods and cardiovascular health. She has also undertaken research on diet and sustainability and redefined the environmental agenda from a food and health perspective. Prof Noakes has authored more than 200 peer-reviewed publications which have been cited more than 9000 times and has an H index of 52. She was instrumental in the development and release of five editions of the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet, which was launched in 2004 and has been translated into 17 languages and sold over one million copies in Australia. The Total Wellbeing Diet has been further commercialised to a successful online programme. Prof Noakes is the recipient of three CSIRO Medals, is a Distinguished Alumni of Flinders University, holds a research excellence award from the University of Adelaide and is a recipient of the Zonta Club Woman of International Achievement award.
Nutrition Consultant
Lain Jager
Lain Jager is best known for his time with the hugely successful kiwifruit marketer Zespri where he was CEO from 2008 to 2017. During his tenure as CEO, Zespri grew strongly through the impact and recovery from the bacterial vine disease Psa, grower returns doubled, and the share price grew from $1.00 to $8.00. Today, Lain is involved in a range of investment projects in Tourism and Agribusiness, serves as a Director on several Boards, was the Chairman of the Primary Sector Council that produced the Fit for a Better World Report focused on the New Zealand Food and Fibre Sector, and is the Co-Chair of Te Puna Whakaaronui – a Food and Fibre think tank. Lain and his wife Debra live on a lifestyle block in Tauranga, New Zealand.
Chair of the Thought Leaders Group for Te Puna Whakaaronui Food and Fibre Think Tank
Lain Jager
Lain Jager is best known for his time with the hugely successful kiwifruit marketer Zespri where he was CEO from 2008 to 2017. During his tenure as CEO, Zespri grew strongly through the impact and recovery from the bacterial vine disease Psa, grower returns doubled, and the share price grew from $1.00 to $8.00. Today, Lain is involved in a range of investment projects in Tourism and Agribusiness, serves as a Director on several Boards, was the Chairman of the Primary Sector Council that produced the Fit for a Better World Report focused on the New Zealand Food and Fibre Sector, and is the Co-Chair of Te Puna Whakaaronui – a Food and Fibre think tank. Lain and his wife Debra live on a lifestyle block in Tauranga, New Zealand.
Chair of the Thought Leaders Group for Te Puna Whakaaronui Food and Fibre Think Tank
Samuel Thevasagayam
Samuel Thevasagayam is the Director of Livestock and Aquaculture within the Agriculture Development Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where he oversees the implementation of foundation’s strategy in animal health, animal production, animal nutrition, animal systems and livestock off-take markets in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Samuel started his career as a small animal clinician and lecturer at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. He then moved to work in academic research, Pharmaceutical R&D (veterinary and human), Business Development and the not-for profit sector, living/working in four continents before joining the Gates Foundation in 2012. Samuel graduated from the faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Gained his PhD in veterinary virology from the University of Hertfordshire for his research on foot-and-mouth disease virus at the Pirbright Institute and holds an MBA from the University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology.
Director of Livestock and Aquaculture within the Agriculture Development Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Samuel Thevasagayam
Samuel Thevasagayam is the Director of Livestock and Aquaculture within the Agriculture Development Program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where he oversees the implementation of foundation’s strategy in animal health, animal production, animal nutrition, animal systems and livestock off-take markets in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Samuel started his career as a small animal clinician and lecturer at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. He then moved to work in academic research, Pharmaceutical R&D (veterinary and human), Business Development and the not-for profit sector, living/working in four continents before joining the Gates Foundation in 2012. Samuel graduated from the faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Gained his PhD in veterinary virology from the University of Hertfordshire for his research on foot-and-mouth disease virus at the Pirbright Institute and holds an MBA from the University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology.
Director of Livestock and Aquaculture within the Agriculture Development Program, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Copy link
Powered by Social Snap